SOAC Conference Proceedings

Editors Foreword

Title: State of Australian Cities Conference 2015: Refereed Proceedings
Year of publication: 2015
Editors: Paul Burton and Heather Shearer
Publisher: Urban Research Program at Griffith University on behalf of the Australian Cities Research Network
ISBN: 978-1-925455-03-8

The 2015 State of Australian Cities Conference, held in the City of Gold Coast, proved to be an intellectually stimulating and enjoyable event. In addition to excellent key note presentations and panel discussions, some leading national and local politicians and policy makers shared their views on some of the current challenges facing cities and how these might be overcome in the future.

The papers presented in these conference proceedings were organised into seven broad themes but all shared, to varying degrees, a common focus on the ways in which high quality academic research can be used in the development and implementation of policy. The relationship between empirical evidence and theoretical developments that are presented as part of our scholarly endeavours and policy processes is rarely clear and straightforward. Sometimes, perhaps because of the fortuitous alignment of various factors, our research has a direct and positive impact on policy. Sometimes it takes longer to be noticed and have influence and, sometimes, there is no little or no evidence of impact beyond or even with the academy. And while there are things we can do to promote the existence of our work and to present it in more accessible formats to people we believe to be influential, ultimately the appreciation and application of our work lies in the hands of others.

Collected together here are hundreds of papers that have each been reviewed and refereed by our peers and revised accordingly. While they each will have been presented briefly at the SOAC conference, they can now be read or re-read at your leisure. We hope they will stimulate further debate and discussion and form a platform for further research.
The will also join the archive of previous SOAC papers, maintained at the APO website at:

We would like to thank all those who attended the 2015 conference, those who prepared and presented the papers gathered here and those who reviewed and refereed them.
Professor Paul Burton and Dr Heather Shearer
Urban Research Program, Griffith University
February 2016


Emerging Approaches in Business Model Innovation Relevant to Sustainability and Low-carbon Transitions in Australian Cities

Idil Gaziulusoy and Paul Twomey

Making Places: Creativity, Craft and Manufacture in Shanghai

Xin Gu

The Role of International Education and Skilled Migration in Creating the Knowledge City: The Case Study of Accounting Professionals in Melbourne

Kathleen Hurley

Data for Local Economic Development Planning

Ian Manning

Chaos, order and self organisation in urban subsystems: the impact of activity centre design, organisation and ownership on local economic activity

Michael McGreevy

Melbourne Docklands: it’s a class remake but it ain’t classy

Hannah Shaw

Tiny houses: a radical new solution for addressing urban housing affordability, or a just another niche market?

Heather Shearer

One City, Many Networks: Brisbane’s Global Position within Multiple Flows

Thomas J Sigler

Activity Centre Policy Effects on Employment Clustering: A Spatial Study of Job Density in Melbourne, Australia

Jennifer Day, Sophie Sturup, Yiqun Chen, Matthew Budahazy, Amy Wu, Lu Fan

Migrant Knowledge Workers in Global Melbourne: Where Do They Live and Where Do They Work?

Sajeda Chowdhury Tuli and Richard Hu

People, Places and Technology: Mapping the Locational Preferences of Home Based Workers in Sydney and Melbourne Metropolitan Areas

Matthew Zenkteler, Sebastien Darchen, Iderlina Mateo-Babiano and Anthony Halog



Exploring the Relationship Between Melbourne’s Water Metabolism and Urban Characteristics

Aristide Athanassiadis, Robert H. Crawford and Philippe Bouillard

Confirmed at Last: Green Roofs Add Invertebrate Diversity

Katherine Berthon, David Nipperess, Peter Davies and Matthew Bulbert

The Role of Political and Financial Factors in the Provision of Parks: The Case of Logan City, Queensland

Chris Boulton Jason Byrne and Aysin Dedekorkut-Howes

Cooling cities with green space: a policy analysis framework

Judy Bush, Lu Aye and Dominique Hes

Don’t fence me in: Understanding local government decisions to allocate and fence public open space for dogs in Melbourne, Australia

Simon Carter, Jennifer Day and Ole Fryd

Carbon Footprint of an Australian Coastal Town: An Assessment of Three Planning Scenarios at Neighbourhood Level

Siqing Chen and Sun Sheng Han

Practicing sustainability: Lessons from a sustainable cohousing community

Matthew Daly

The continuing rise of transnational urban climate governance: Global Mayors Compact

Kathryn Davidson

Urban development and land contamination: incremental pressures and policy gaps

Peter J Davies, Jim Fraser and Steve George

Beach Erosion and Nourishment in Gold Coast: Perceptions, Policies and Prospects

Dr. Subas P. Dhakal, Prof. Kerry Brown and Prof. John Burgess

Household adaptation to climate change and the resilience of Australian urban areas

Carmen Elrick-Barr

Practitioner perspectives on nature conservation at the urban edge

Kathryn Eyles

Home Habitat Habitus: Design for cross-species cohabitation

Viveka Turnbull Hocking

Green Urbanism in Australia: An Evaluation of Green Building Rating Schemes

Ms Jessica L Holz and Dr Thomas J Sigler

Neighbourhood Disaster Resilience Index: A Validation in the Context of Brisbane and Ipswich 2010/2011 Floods

Leila Irajifar, Tooran Alizadeh and Neil Sipe

Protected Areas – what do they face when located within a city planning for substantial growth

Adrienne F Keane and Peter J Davies

A Conceptual Framework for Assessing Green Infrastructure Sustainability Performance in Australia

Parisa Pakzad and Paul Osmond

Noosa Climate Action Plan: An Example of Collaborative Climate Governance?

Kava Piran and Aysin Dedekorkut-Howes

Visions and Scenarios of Low-Carbon and Resilient Australian Cities in 2040

Paul Twomey, Stephen McGrail, A. Idil Gaziulusoy and Chris Ryan

Water recycling Via Aquifers – ‘Hidden’ Storage and Treatment for Cities

J. Vanderzalm1, D. Page, P. Dillon, S. Toze, J. Sidhu, K. Barry, D. Gonzalez and S. Torkzaban



Telecommunication Infrastructure and Pork Barrel Politics? An Investigation of the National Broadband Network Early Rollout and Voting Behaviour in Australia

Tooran Alizadeh

Archetypes and other heuristics for planning in the social complexity of the Australian private rental system.

Angela Ballard

Sustainability at the Australian local government level: Is there room for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)?

Umberto Baresi, Karen J. Vella and Neil G. Sipe

Integrating the applied behavioural sciences to improve community engagement processes in Victorian strategic land use planning practice

Suzanne Barker and Jim Curtis

Public Participation as an Instrument for Incorporating Local Knowledge into Planning Processes

Tal Berman

Using an Urban Sustainability Assessment Framework to support Policy-making at a Neighbourhood level

Andre Brits, Matthew Burke and Tiebei Li

Downscaling planning’s fashions: network formation and application in the small city

Andrew Butt, Trevor Budge and Mark Bello

Shading Liveable Cities: exploring the ecological, financial and regulatory dimensions of the urban tree canopy

Nicole Cook and Rachel Hughes

Planning Reform, Interest Group Participation and Influence: the Case of New South Wales

Tingting Cui and Nicole Gurran

Understanding the Importance of Trust (and Distrust) in Auckland’s Intensification Process

Edward Dolan

Don’t ask permission: live/work

Andreanne Doyon

The Towards a Resilient Sydney project: from Collective Assessment to Strategic Frameworks

Suzanne Dunford, Christopher Lee, Brent Jacobs and Amanda Neirinckx

Rethinking Public Transport Accessibility: A Scenario for Decentralized Melbourne

Milena Duric and Dalibor Duric

Urbanising Nature: a political ecology case study of Sydney Park

Catherine Evans

The Regulation of Excellence: Design Competitions in Sydney

Robert Freestone, Gethin Davison, Richard Hu and Sarah Baker

Conceptualising ‘integration’ in policy and practice: A case study of integrated planning in Melbourne

Hayley Henderson and Melanie Lowe

Resilient cities and lost opportunities: the case of transport funding in New Zealand

Stephen Knight-Lenihan

Strategic action and Planning change: Regulatory Changes and Bushfire Resilience

Maria Kornakova, Alan March and Brendan Gleeson

There will always be ‘winners’ and ‘losers’: Understanding perceptions of procedural justice in a contested planning landscape

Anna Leditschke, Rowena Butland and Matthew W. Rofe

Transformability of Civic Engagement in Times of Economic Crisis

Crystal Legacy

Refining Principles of Compensation for Traditional and Non-traditional Public Purposes in Land Acquisition

Vince Mangioni

Disaster risk reduction and urban planning: a case of uneven mainstreaming?

Alan March and Stephen Dovers

Public Involvement Online: Planning Meets Facebook© and Twitter©

Claire Downie and Nancy Marshall

Multi-functionality and the Urban-Rural Dichotomy in Australian Metropolitan Planning

Paul McFarland

Simple in Theory, But Not in Practice: A ‘Warts and All’ Reflection on the Use of Visioning Exercises in Urban Contexts

Stephen McGrail, A. Idil Gaziulusoy and Paul Twomey

Defining the inevitable: micro-practices of strategic spatial planning

David Mitchell

The Exigency of Making Auckland the World’s Most Liveable City and its Detrimental Consequences

Mohsen Mohammadzadeh

Governance and Regional Planning Outcomes: Using Governance Indicators to support a Policy Implementation Approach

Jamie Olvera-Garcia

Vanity Unfair – Examining the Impact of development authorities on the designation and development of public space: Barangaroo Case Study

Kane Pham

Analysis of governance for sustainability planning in the Cairns Region

Ruth Potts and Karen Vella

Impact of Monetary Costs on Citizen Appeals of Planning Decisions

Stephen Rowley and Joe Hurley

The balance of planning ideologies in Existing Use Rights cases at the New South Wales Land and Environment Court

Laura Schatz

A Neo-Liberal Paradox: Australian State Funding of Major Sporting Stadiums

Glen Searle

Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Land-Use Planning in the Second Machine Age

Tony Sorensen

Solomon Heights: A Zombie Subdivision?

Elizabeth Jean Taylor, David Nichols and Victoria Kolankiewicz

The Tide is High: Evaluating Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Resilience at the Local Level 

Elnaz Torabi, Michael Howes, and Aysin Dedekorkut-Howes

Does strategic planning provide the clarity it claims? Framing land-use conflict as competing interpretations of the same planning concept: the case of the ‘mixed-use neighbourhood’

Ryan van den Nouwelant

Assessing social media use by community groups using social network analysis

Wayne Williamson and Kristian Ruming



Socially Healthy Ageing: The Importance of Third Places, Soft Edges and Walkable Neighbourhoods

Sara Alidoust, Caryl Bosman and Gordon Holden

Walkable neighbourhoods, Physical activity and Wellbeing in Melbourne, Australia

Christopher L. Ambrey

Testing community resilience to the introduction of poker machines

Diana Bell and Rebecca Sirianni

Planning for Food Security in Urban Areas: A case study of the City of Charles Sturt, Adelaide

Michael Dickson, Sadasivam Karuppannan and Alpana Sivam

Making health a planning priority: how was health framed in the review of the NSW planning system?

Jennifer Kent

Improving integrated planning in Melbourne: Exploring barriers and enablers of health-promoting policy integration

Melanie Lowe, Carolyn Whitzman and Billie Giles-Corti

Time poor, health poor? Travel-related time poverty and resident health in a greenfield master-planned estate

Larissa Nicholls, Kath Phelan and Cecily Maller

Growing Food in a Residential Landscape

Ian Sinclair

Creating Environments that Support Healthy Living Using Methodologies for Deep Understandings

Susan Thompson, Gregory Paine and Emily Mitchell




From Squaresville to Triangle Town: Geometries for public transport network planning

Kristen Bell

Urban design guidelines for places with restorative values

Nigel Cartlidge, Lynne Armitage and Daniel O’Hare

Space/Time Mapping of Urban Transit: Isochrones, Car-dependency and Mode-choice in Melbourne

Kim Dovey, Ian Woodcock, Lucinda Pike, Milena Duric and Dalibor Duric

A GIS Methodology for Estimating the Transport Network Impedance to Last-Mile Delivery

Kolawole Ewedairo, Prem Chhetri and Jago Dodson

Strategic option assessment – an alternative approach to multi-criteria analysis for transport / land use corridors

Neil Prosser, Patrick Fensham and Laura Schmahmann

Cycling to Work and the Gender Gap in Brisbane: a study of the environmental, sociocultural and individual determinants of gender disparity in commuter cycling in inner-Brisbane

Jayden Forbes-Mitchell and Iderlina Mateo-Babiano

Ageing in Place and the Decision to Move: A Longitudinal Study of Australia

Hoon Han and Jun-Hyung Kim

Drive till you Qualify: An Alternative View of Housing Affordability

Jon Kellett John Morrissey and Sadasivam Karuppannan

New Approaches to Oil Vulnerability Mapping for Australian Cities: The Case of South-East Queensland, the 200km City

Abraham Leung, Matthew Burke, Jianqiang Cui and Anthony Perl

Changing patterns of active travel in Sydney? An analysis of commuter trips 2001 to 2011

Dylan Meade

Prioritising public transport policy goals in Auckland

Muhammad Imrana and Jane Pearce

Passing the Community Test- A co-benefits approach to evaluating the case for light rail in Canberra, Australia

Andrew MacKenzie, Milica Muminovic, Gay Williamson, Rachel Davey, Vincent Lernihan

Why do cyclists feel safer in inner Amsterdam and Copenhagen than Melbourne? A Contextual Framework

Warwick Pattinson

Incremental Intensificaiton: Transit-Oriented Re-Development of Small-Lot Corridors

Lucinda Pike, Ian Woodcock and Kim Dovey

The impacts of political changes on public transport accessibility in Melbourne, 2008-2014

Jan Scheurer and Carey Curtis

Melbourne’s public transport: performance and prospects after 15 years of ‘privatisation’

Dr John Stone, Yvonne Kirk and John Odgers

Robust Criteria for Sustainable Development: How to Lie with Transport Statistics

Mishka Talent

Innovation and transport planning: introducing urban linear ferries in Brisbane

Michael Tanko and Matthew Burke

Development of Real-time transport applications in Sydney – A hybrid model

Tim Tompson

Factors Influencing Public Transport Use: A Study of University Commuters’ Travel and Mode Choice Behaviours

Dong Wang and Yan Liu

The Function of Individual Factors on Travel Behaviour: Comparative Studies on Perth and Shanghai

Shaoli Wang and Carey Curtis

Using the land-use planning system to achieve transport-planning outcomes: Comparing experiences between NSW and the UK

Laura Wynne

An exploratory analysis of Bus Rapid Transit on property values: A case study of Brisbane’s South East Busway

Min Zhang



Stranger Adaptations: Cultural Diversity and Public/private interface adaptations in Bankstown, Sydney

Sanaz Alian and Stephen Wood

Planning Neighbourhoods for all Ages and Abilities: A Multi-generational Perspective

Claudia Baldwin and Lisa Stafford

An Aboriginal Obligation to Country: Challenging The Status Quo

Rachael Cole-Hawthorne, David Jones and  Darryl Low Choy

Envisioning Urban Futures with Children and Young People

Linda Corkery and Kate Bishop

The wicked problems of Western Sydney’s older suburbs

Sharon Fingland

Divided Cities? Measuring the significance of, and relative 1 contribution to ethnic segregation in Australia’s capital cities 

Xavier Goldie

The Zombies of Sleepy Hollow: Reimagining Geelong

Fiona Gray and Matt Novacevski

Blueprints and Actors for Logan Renewal Initiative – Are they embryonic of a viable social housing partnership between government and not-for-profit sectors?

Sirisena Herath

Housing Displacement in Australian Cities: A Brisbane Case-Study

Anne-Sophie Iotti, Wendy Steele, Neil Sipe and Jago Dodson

Ships, Planes and Automobiles – The Perils and Pluses of Place-making in an Outer Melbourne Suburb

Louise Johnson, Fiona Andrews and Elyse Warner

Retirement Village or the General Community? Downsizing Choices of Older Australians

Bruce Judd, Edgar Liu, Hazel Easthope and Catherine Bridge

Temporal and spatial patterns of fire incident response time: a case study of residential fires in Brisbane

Kiran KC

Exploring Narratives of the ‘Good Life’ in the North Australian town of Broome

David Kelly

Public Greenspaces and Crime: an Analysis of Crime Timing and Public Greenspace Amenities

Anthony Kimpton, Jonathan Corcoran and Rebecca Wickes

Mapping the ‘Mis-location’ of Private Rental Tenure in Australian Housing Market: A Case Study of Brisbane, Australia

Yan Liu, David Wadley and Hoon Han

Exploring cultures of belonging in Darwin, Australia

Michele Lobo

Responding to change in a growing Melbourne: Community acceptance, wellbeing, and resilience

Rod McCrea, Greg Foliente, Rosemary Leonardc, and Andrea Walton

Triple Bottom Line for systems analyses on integrated transport and land use planning in urban renewal

Li Meng, Julie Douglas, Andrew Allan

Social Effects of Disaster Waste Management: A Case Study of Brisbane Suburbs Post 2011 January Floods

Penny Milton and  Derlie Mateo-Babiano

Methodological Challenges in Critical Analysis of Institutional Discourses of Residential Multi-Occupancy in Melbourne

Keiken Munzner and Dr. Jennifer Day

Building Transformation Through Housing Expos: A multi-pronged strategy to help address the wicked problem of affordable housing

Clare Newton, Ian Gilzean, Sarah Backhouse, Tom Alves, Carolyn Whitzman and Alan Pert

Planning for resilient coastal settlements through bottom-up approaches: lessons from Shoalhaven, NSW, Australia

Silvia Serrao-Neumann and Darryl Low Choy

Policy, planning and financing options for affordable housing in Melbourne

Alexander Sheko, Andrew Martel and Andrew Spencer

Weak Tie Relationships in High Density Residential Areas, and the Types of Spaces Used to Maintain Them

Sian Thompson, Hazel Easthope and Gethin Davison

Countering Terrorism in the City

Douglas Tomkin

Planning the end of the compact city?

Laurence Troy, Bill Randolph, Simon Pinnegar, Hazel Easthope

Physical Determinism and Australian Cities

Patrick Troy

Seniors’ Playgrounds May Never Get Old

Jessica Volkanovski and Nancy Marshall

Partnerships for Affordable Housing: Lessons from Melbourne, Portland, Vancouver and Toronto

Professor Carolyn Whitzman,

Regional Innovation and Public Wi-fi

Chris K Wilson, Ian McShane and Denise Meredyth



Practising architecture in Global Sydney: Re-theorising the Architecture of the Global City

Elizabeth Adamczyk

Creating a Centre for the Centre-less City: The Case of the Gold Coast 

Bayan Abdi Puya and Aysin Dedekorkut-Howes

Modelling Behavioural Responsiveness in City Structuring

Sharon Biermann, Chris Pettit and Andre Brits

Alternative futures for Melbourne’s peri-urban regions

Michael Buxton

Chucking in, Cleaning up and Making Better: The Contested Meaning of Social Housing Renewal

Lynda Cheshire

Image Analysis of Urban Design Representation Towards Alternatives

Robyn Creagh

Planning the Unplanned City: The Story of the Gold Coast

Aysin Dedekorkut-Howes and Severine Mayere

Good design- A case for adopting a user centred approach to medium density housing

Melinda Dodson, Andrew MacKenzie

Indicating Quality of Place for station precinct development: enhancing ‘place’ in the place/node model

Anthony Duckworth-Smith and Courtney Babb

Density through amalgamation? Battling the sticky cadastre

Craig Fredrickson

Urban or suburban? Examining the density of Australian cities in a global context

Andrew Spencer, Jeremy Gill and Laura Schmahmann

Interdisciplinary Tools to Enable Middle Suburb Regeneration

Stephen Glackin, Roman Trubka, Rita Dionisio, Peter Newman, Peter Newton, Simon Kingham

Planning regulation and the mediation of housing outcomes: new evidence from planners in four metropolitan regions

Catherine Gilbert, Nicole Gurran, Steven Rowley, Amity James and Peter Phibbs

Exploring infrastructure provision issues in greenfield and urban infill residential developments

Cathryn Hamilton and Jon Kellett

What can house prices tell us about the effects of the globalisation of trade on Australian cities?

Warwick Jones

Precinct Regeneration of Dispersed Public Housing in Middle Suburbs

Nigel Bertram, Shane Murray, Lee-Anne Khor, Byron Meyer, Deborah Rowe, Catherine Murphy, Peter Newton, Stephen Glackin, Tom Alves and Rob McGauran

Urban Consolidation in Melbourne: a Case Study of the Monash Employment Cluster

Dejan Malenic and Sun Sheng Han

Urban Design: An Underutilized Tool for Disaster Risk Reduction?

Alan March, Jorge León

Regenerating the Suburbs: A model for Compact, Resilient Cities

Caitlin McGee

Design Research Towards Improving Liveability and Sustainability in Medium Density Infill Housing in South East Queensland

Nigel Bertram, Catherine Murphy, Byron Meyer and Deborah Rowe

Flood Mitigation With and Without ‘Planning': The Roles of Ideas, Interests and Institutions

John Minnery

The Shanghai Model for Activity Centres and its Potential in the Australian Context

Andrew Monaghan, Matthew Burke and Professor Pan Haixiao

Improving Design Outcomes in the Built Environment through Design Review Panels and Design Guidelines.

Trivess Moore, Tome Alves, Ralph Horne and Andrew Martel

A Methodology for Exploring Relationships Among Physical Features of Residential Back-Laneways and Their Uses

Miza Moreau

Strategic land use capacity in in Melbourne

Kath Phelan

Human Dimensions of Residential Sector Energy Consumption

Lavinia Poruschi and Christopher L. Ambrey

Defining the density debate in Brisbane: how urban consolidation is represented in the media

Katrina Raynor and Tony Matthews and Severine Mayere

Housing Design Innovations Delivered Under the National Social Housing Initiative

Shane Murray, Nigel Bertram, Lee-Anne Khor, Byron Meyer, Deborah Rowe, Catherine Murphy, Peter Newton, Stephen Glackin, Tom Alves and Rob McGauran

A Temporary City: Temporary Use as a Tool for Urban Design in the Creation of Convivial Urban Space

Hannah Shaw

The Cyborg City: Re-thinking Urban Resilience Through Mobile Communications

Wendy Steele, Ian McShane, Crystal Legacy, Yolande Strengers, John Handmer and Sarah Pink

An Exploratory Analysis of Brisbane’s Commuter Travel Patterns Using Smart Card Data

Ming Wei, Yan Liu, Thomas J Sigler

Infill Development and the Distribution of Open Space in Melbourne

Jennifer Witheridge

Urban Dimensions of Creative Clustering: Mix/Adaptation/Networks/Ambivalence

Stephen Wood, Kim Dovey and Lucinda Pike